Globalization is a process by which various aspects of life like economic, social, cultural and political aspects are incorporated globally in trade network. The evaluation of a book, poem or any imaginative writing can simply be called its analysis or critique. Articles are normally analyzed based on the feeling of the reader. They are meant to convey the intention of the author by citing sections and passages in picky. They also bring out possible interpretations and concealed meanings of the article. Real World Real World Globalization is a book- written as guidance to the rapid shifting trends of world trade, monetary development, industry relations and investments. It provides language-free introductions to world environment, trade institutions, health, resource issues, worldwide arrears, and jobs in the world’s economy. It analyzes strategies from Nepal to Brazil. It also includes chapters in war, imperialism and economical crisis.
Genetic engineering and privatization of seeds
This is the first part of the chapter 8. It falls under economic globalization. Natural agriculture has been practiced for long. It has been until the new bio-revolution when genetic engineering has taken over from natural farming. This has had a great impact on the global economy.
The period of quitting natural agriculture is already here. Bio technology has taken over in all agricultural activities all over the world. But the big question that is asked is whether it can be able to feed the world. Genetic engineering is become the source of food in the globe especially times when natural agriculture is affected by eth environmental hazards. Hunger is not only caused by food shortage. But the funniest thing is that it can be eliminated by producing more food. Genetic engineering is seen to be the solution of doing this. The root of hunger problem is unequal distribution of access to resources and in this case; being more specific life science distribution. But according to what we learn, we are at least assured that this can come to an end through the second green revolution that gears at equating the life sciences globally.
The United States of America is the world’s leading producer of food. But there are cases of American citizens suffering from food shortage and hunger. Yet the United States of America is the world’s number one state where genetic engineering has gone far much ahead. But again, the world countries that are ever most hungry are found to have enough food for their people. Globally, the world’s most malnourished cases are from developing and already developing states. For instance India that exports the world’s third of agricultural products has the highest number of malnourished cases. This happens because the poor cannot access the food that the rich use and then end up exporting the surplus but not make it into the use of the country’s needs.
However, in third world countries, the people without land are so because of policies that may be exist in their states. Generally hunger can be alleviated through agriculture. This will only happen through the haves sharing with the have nos. this will encourage wealthier and larger scale farmers sharing with smaller farmers.
Travel and displacement is affected by natural disasters. In this, it ends up that the tourism activities are affected. Urban centers are more crowded than the rural centers where young and the old are left. The impacts of living in urbanization then come to the rise. This leads to globalization and various effects because urbanization takes place everywhere.
Economy greatly relies on the oil products. This is so because almost all the activities and more specifically movement rely on this oil to be transported. Processing of various products too relies on this. Economic climate is core to the globalization process. He argues that there are four fundamental principles that govern the environment. Climate policy requires that we insure the world! This is to mean that the natural resources that are in the world to make sure that the economic environment is in proper place. Economically, some costs become preferable than others. Economic environmental policies are a core factor on job creation, income rates and new technologies. Climatic changes affect the pricing of goods. In summer cost of prices tend to be lower than in the winter seasons.
The last part of this article is climatic change and eco-socialism. It is an interview with Kovel Joel. We note the role of capitalism in globalization. He views this as a factor that saved the planet. He explains on the way which capitalism is extended from Gore and Kyoto Protocol. According to him, we see that he is positive on capitalism as a whole. Capitalism goes hand in hand with sufficient and unlimited resources. We however note that the remarks he later makes are all based on the fact that capitalism will eventually collapse because we cannot maintain the steady flow of resources all through.
This does not mean that the human existence will come to an end. This will increase the social abilities of human beings and hence promote globalization. He says that people will organize communally, or fall into hopeless, warring chaos. Frank (2008). He seems to be promoting eco-socialism. Population and over-population is also discussed. He seems to see different forms of people of social backgrounds act differently in varied economic diversifications.
On climate, Kovel uses carbon dioxide and says that it uses carbon dioxide is caused by capitalism. It seems funny though. He links this to the Marxism.
From the Ohlin theory, “trade can be and is generated by equalizing factor prices and benefits from trade between two regions: A labor rich region exports labor intensive goods and imports capital and/or land intensive products from regions that are relatively rich in capital and land, thereby also tending to equalize factor prices between both regions.” This rise a question of equalization occurring within these areas comes in. However, these effects are not the same and have from time to time less and more equality to the following factors of pre existing political economic structure.
It is worth noting that in the two Atlantic economies, they did come out to be the two most unequal and unstable economies.
O’Rourke agreed this. He said,
“Equal factor prices across regions cannot serve as an adequate index of trade globalization; since even in the today’s globalized economy world and even national factor prices and of course especially the wage price of labor is still unequal. But if we agree that the presence or lack of price equalization cannot be used as an, let alone the,index of globalization, then what remains of our authors’ argument that the absence even of convergence proves that there was no world economy.” Frank (1999).
This could majorly be the most an influential point of the rapid changing trends of the global economy.
Many key concepts have been used in the global economy in the article. To start with, restructuring has been widely used as a key term. According to Barendse “this concept reffres to The concept refers to basic, more-or-less rapid change in the technical, social, political, and territorial organization of investment, production, trade, and aid.” (2008).
This is where many shifts identified are social cultural reproduction and politics.
“The increased segmentation and volatility of market demand; the organizational decentralization of firms and the enhanced flexibility of production; the strategic ascendance of finance capital and specialized services relative to manufacturing; the transfer of public resources to private hands; the proportional relocation of manufacturing activity from the United States and Western Europe to East Asia as well as poor geographic areas; and deterioration in the average pay, stability, and other conditions of employment.”
Jeffrey H. came out with five globalization concepts and listed them as:
the existence of a global infrastructure
global harmonization or convergence of some important characteristic feature
global diffusion of some initially localized phenomenon and
geographical dispersion of core competences in some highly desirable activities.
On the contrary, theorems and predictions of the authors clearly define the commodities and manufacturing of trade as not a major factor but factor mobility. They argue that factor mobility is a major contribution to the wage rate income convergence. From their work, they clearly demonstrate and stress on the openness to the issues of globalization.
From their conclusion, we can learn that policy recommendation for the present and future is in open to serious reservation on several counts that range from arguments that stand to date and the convergence of the global economy. Various comments emerge from the above conclusions drawn. Their insistence on the future’s openness must be suspected because they just argue that it is because of factor mobility of labor that they observed convergence. This is also to say that factor mobility is crucial because their percentage is a little bit lower and it ought to have been a little bit high.
Lastly the authors have found merchandize trade did not generate convergence. This could be another supporting reason for capital mobility. Without capital to make labor and land productive in the regions of recent settlement, there could be no globalization. In conclusion, chapter 8 “late-nineteenth century world capital flows were a force for divergence, not convergence”
Third world, looking at India for instance, it was its good relation with Britain that laid the entire global system of multilateral imbalances of trade. First world were able to settle balances of globalization through drawing favorable balance with others.
It is evident that globalization is not all about spreading ideas in culture but more is on modern industrialization. Globally, countries have a greater capability of gaining knowledge and economic stability through natural resources. Of course this becomes a direct impact that more cars consume more fuel and more consumer goods. Natural resources will therefore have a finite limit which will eventually influence the global population, energy output and consumerism. Low availability of raw material is likely to affect the rate of globalization negatively.
Global increase of human population has increased and it will affect the environment and natural resources. The amount of carbon dioxide released and other greenhouse gases is likely to create an effect on global climate.
“The globalization of trade puts pressure on natural resources around the world, helping to drive the rapid depletion of tropical forests, the collapse of many ocean fisheries, and even the global impoverishment of biological diversity. We travel so much that we are becoming more vulnerable to epidemics, helped along by the global spread of antibiotic resistance.” Ravi and Chris (2009).
Fundamental changes are required to transform the globe into a stable society. However this does not mean that environmental globalization should be applied all over! Environment is very diverse and poses very many challenges. This can only happen if we don’t leave the environmental issues to the intellectual elite only. There are various constructive elements that we can use to achieve the environmental empowerment. These include:
Information sources for environmental factors should provide local and global scientific information for all stakeholders.
Participation in environmental activities should be encouraged in observation, assessment and management.
Having the notion that human systems are part of natural systems or rather the environment.
New sets of indicators are needed to in guiding the society to maximize the environmental capita.
Dialogues on environmental movements are a pressure to the global thinking and should be encouraged for it will shade more light into globalization.