Rainfall shortage is described as a period when the average amount of received rainfall is below the expected normal expected amounts. Rainfall shortage is a major global environmental issue that has hit all corners of the world. This condition has largely been blamed the current global warming that is a as a result of green house gas emissions due to human activities. The consequent global climate change has made the world to be on the verge of an impeding rainfall and water shortage.
Research conducted by various scholars and institutions have established and further predicted that the persistent global warming that has been linked with the increasing levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide will eventually leave the whole world with serious water shortage due to poor rainfalls received. Over the next 50 years, it is projected that failure to avert the rampant green house gas emission and protection of water towers, the world is likely plunge into serious water problems.
Studies that been conducted using regional climate models and based on a numerical model simulations of the earth reveal that by the year 2049, there will be a serious rainfall shortage. A good example is the study carried out on the western region of United States of America that shows the condition would result into a major scarcity of water.
Water shortage in a particular area bring into being a series of impacts human life. This does not only affect the residents of that particular region but broaden beyond the location incurring the crisis. Persistent water shortage can lead to drought that poses a great danger to many lives. The first effect of drought will be felt on natural vegetation and crops that are planted away from wetlands and rivers. This ha severe consequences as it will lower the yields in farms. The problem here will be shortage of food. Toady this is a major issue that leaves thousands of people dying day in day out because of hunger and starvation. There are still other severe consequences that have been brought about by shortage of rainfall; the low yields will then cut down the income made by farmers and forestry farmers. The rampant and ever increasing food prices have also been largely blamed on this issue. Unemployment can not be left out of this list as droughts have left so man y farmers and other farm workers jobless due to shrinking agricultural productive areas.
Mass migration in especially in developing countries like those in Western Africa is a direct consequence of prolonged rainfall shortage in the region that has caused droughts in the area hence forcing people out of the areas in search of wet areas. The migration has made people to consistently move southwards, an area that is already densely overcrowded. This is the case in many other [parts of the world which has resulted in a lot of strain and pressure on the relatively wet regions.
Many countries rely on rainfall to run the economic systems. For instance most countries in the world heavily depend on hydroelectric power to run their industries. The shortage of water will paralyze most of these operations as poor rainfalls lead a drop in river volumes and therefore inadequate water to run the turbines. The worst affected is normally economies of the governments in questions as less production can easily lead the economy into economic crisis. The cost of production becomes high, increasing the prices of the output. Very many workers also get laid off in these industries.
There are other myriad consequences of rainfall shortage that directly or indirectly affect human kind. Generally, there are lower flows in rivers that lead lower dissolution of effluent discharges and lower levels of dissolved oxygen in water. This issue has made survival hard for both aquatic and marginal plants and animals. Additionally, there is a reduction in fish spawning areas that reduces migration of fish as a result of low flows.
Conclusively, it can be stated that the current and even the future predicted worse rainfall /water shortage impacts negatively on human kind whether directly or indirectly. This crisis has no quick fix as most of its contributing factors like increasing population, land use change, carbon emission, industrialization among other causes are still on the rise.