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These are the works of small dimensions-manuscripts illumination, carvings of ivory and metal work. During the Carolingian period, the liturgical manuscripts were characterized by a tentative fusion of ornamental motifs of Irish origin and by figures derived from antiquity. The later Carolingian miniatures show similarity with the late antiquity and are influenced by the Byzantine artistic style. Carolingian art work shows beauty similarity with the new minuscule form of writing with clarity (Hall, 1983). The carving of the ivory had a close resemblance to the miniatures of Carolingian which was part of the book cover. However, there is no evidence that relates the Carolingian period with metalwork objects. Examples of the artistic accomplishments during the Carolingian period are; the large golden alter of sant’Ambrogio in Milan, the portable alter of Arnulf, and several splendid book covers.
According to Atroshenko & Collins, (1985) the Romanesque Art work on the other side emulated much of the Roman architecture style though it also had some aspects of the Byzantine art of painting with anti-classical energy in decorative works. The Roman feature included; Rounded head arches, barrel vaults, apses and leafy decorations. The Romanesque wall paintings were large wall surfaces with curving vaults.
The Irish monasteries played a major role in modeling the artistic works in Europe; they were significant in the development of visual arts (Stalley, 1977). They contacted teachings in illustration and calligraphy. They commissioned encouraged metalworkers and metallurgical by commissioning metal artworks which included adornments for biblical manuscripts and ecclesiastical artifacts. They led to the strengthening of the metal work techniques such as wax casting, riveting, soldering, filigree gold work and enameling. The monastic culture also uplifted the sculptors who made Celtic high cross sculptures on monastic sites across Ireland. The monasteries also enhanced the classical European culture in line with the Greek and Roman times.
Abbot Suger accepted Saint Bernard’s suggestion to rebuild his monastery, he build the church by using the Gothic style. He had dreamed of creating a kingdom to better the mother church that had shaped him through inventing an architectural expression. He therefore made his contribution to the church through the Gothic style, to the Monestery of St. Dennis. The Gothic style later on spread other many churches. These new elements were unique to compare to the Romanesque style.
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