This forms an introduction to sampling and analysis techniques, which are applied in freshwater ecosystems. This paper puts more emphasize on river systems. The main methods of improving water quality have been focused on the process of river basin management planning. The process makes use of environmental conditions and standards, in assessing risks pertaining to ecological quality of water environment, and identify improvement scales that ensures healthy water, not only water in good condition. These standards and conditions are because of best scientific understanding of the requirements of both aquatic plants and animals. According to the available data and knowledge permits, these standards are aligned in correspondence to biological standards. As a result any failure in standard and condition, the ecological impacts will be very adverse.
It has been proved that, a balance between water environment protection and its sustainable use has to be designed. This will enable individuals escape costs that might be incurred in the process of attaining environmental standard or condition limits, when restoring very much polluted ecological status to healthy waters. this paper aims at comparing current water environment condition with appropriate standards through various methods like for instance; identifying the causes of adverse impacts on aquatic plants and animals.
The method of assessing Differences in Habitat and Water Quality of River Almond depends on weather condition for some activity to be undertaken. There are two sites for sampling, of which both need to be tributaries of river Almond. Sampling of benthic invertebrates at each side, follows standard technique used by GB Environmental agencies, which involves three minutes kick sample using a 900 micro-meter wire mesh net. In the process of sampling and subsequent sorting, all samples need to be labeled clearly with site names, date and collectors. Sample sorting in lab can be undertaken if time allows if not, it is presumed to be 70% alcohol and sorted after fieldwork.
On top of benthic community sampling, there is also physic-chemical condition recordings for the prediction of RIVPACS/RICT for the sites. Some variables include source distance, altitude and slope. Some collected information. Some of the collected information might to some extent overlap with that collected within river habitat survey. During sorting large objects need to be removed to make it easier for the remaining material sorting. After sampling, the next step will be identification. There need to be standard keys for all taxa that might be encountered. Identification need to be undertaken with much care as any mistake in initial stage time consumption. Identification need to be undertaken at a family level to work with given keys. A long required calculation details, the BMWP is provided overleaf.
At every site, there is need for morphological pressure survey, which describes the nature and extent of any alterations to form and riparian habitats. The Morphological Impact Assessment Systems (MImAS) technique is to be used in this process. The initial step of MPS survey entails identification of types of morphology prevails. The presence, extent and location of different morphological pressures are recorded by MPS. In the following broad categories, pressures of relevant zones are recorded; bridges, engineer works, impoundments, floodplains. The method of computing footprints of different pressures depends on pressure types. The pressure significant weights different pressure’s footprints and when combined, they provide overall assessment of river modification.
Fisheries survey will be undertaken in the two sites by the use of electro-fishing technique, before the survey full safety has to be given to researchers. Fish identification need to be according to fish species, hence measured and weighted in the field. It time allows, three electro-fishing need to be thrice for every stretch, hence allowing estimation of population size by the use of depletion method. Some of these methods include; depletion method enrich repeated surveys have to be undertaken on a similar stretch. Another method simplest method is two-pass method in which there is the undertaking of two surveys. The Seber-Le Cren (1967)is then applied. The help of some software that have been designed to perform relevant calculations does the population size estimation in most cases. In using this software, it is good to ensure that, other data does not exist below the table, or even in the seven columns on the right hand side of the data table, as this is the point that the out put will be displayed, and it simply writes at the top of what all right exist.
Concerning the chemistry of water, water samples need to be taken at is very site for subsequent water analysis in the lab for major nutrients. Clean-labeled acid–washed polypropylene will be used in the collection of water samples. For the minimization of trapped air in the samples, is done by filling the bottles completely, and kept at 40c in a cool-box. Whatman filters in the lab are then used in the removal of particulate materials, which might end up influencing the results. The analysis of water samples will be done with the aim of analyzing major inorganic nutrients like nitrates, by the use of colorimetric methods by the help of Autoanalyser. By the help of obtained results from the predetermined dilution standards, there is a construction of a standard curve for the determination of concentrations of unknown samples. Since , preparation of samples is through filtration, it is then much significant to produce a series of standard dilution for every nutrient that is being determined. The accuracy of results has been researched and found that, it relays on measurement accuracy. For volume requirements, pipettors are supposed to be checked and adjusted, and calibrated by weighing water (1ml = 1g).
Surface Water Qualities
Temperature affects the growth and development of aquatic species. It usually affects tolerance, metabolism mechanism, success in reproduction, diseases resistance. The indirect effects that temperature can have on aquatic species may include changing water chemistry by changing solubility and effects on consumption of oxygen.
More stringent temperature standards should apply to River Almondunder fresh fisher directive. Individuals have an obligation to apply these temperature standards. The proposed new standards for the assessment and protection of ecological status and ecological potential of rivers need to apply on river Almond. Since the proposed standards for better are not as stringent as compared to the existing standards, hence , compliance with new standards will not demand more from action operators.