In the most general sense, cloning is an exact reproduction of an object. The object that was derived from cloning is called a clone. Human cloning is the process of the development and cultivation of the new human beings. They are exactly reproduced not only outside, but also on the genetic level of an individual. The terms clone and cloning was originally used in microbiology and selection. Later, it was used in genetics. It is necessary to add that the literature, film and computer game industry made the significant contribution to the promotion of the cloning process. The human cloning technology is not developed to its logical end.
At present, there is no single case of the human cloning. The possibility of the human cloning is raising both the theoretical and technical issues. However, there are methods that allow saying with a high degree of confidence that the main issue of the technology side is solved. The most successful case of the animal cloning was the method of nuclear transfer. This method was used to clone the sheep Dolly in the United Kingdom. The sheep had lived enough to talk about the success of the experiment. This technique is the best of what we have today for the next step. There are all necessary techniques to begin immediate development of the human cloning. The cloning process raised many ethical issues. The cloning should be banned in order to escape any serious consequences like child reproduction and genetic mutation.
The general opinion about the issue of the human cloning is based on the position that society is not ready to integrate this process into our world. However, there are many counterarguments that support the position of human cloning. There are several benefits that can be gained from the human cloning and can bring the benefits to mankind. One of the main advantages of the cloning is the ability to make people younger. It was found that the production of the clone tissue would allow elderly people to look younger. In one day this technology will enable to reverse process of aging. “Dr. Richard Seed, one of the leading proponents of human cloning technology, suggests that it may someday be possible to reverse the aging process because of what we learn from cloning” (Smith, 1998). It would allow treating the heart attack. Today, heart attack is the number one killer in both developed and developing countries. Scientists believe that by cloning healthy heart cells and injecting those cells to the damaged area of the heart would help to treat heart problems. The heart attacks can be cured. Cloning can be a solution of such problems as infertility. The success of modern treatment of the infertility is on the very low level. In addition, the couple must go through a painful procedure with a little chance to get the child. The advent of technology of the human cloning would allow for infertile couples to have children, more real than ever before. “Many couples run out of time and money without successfully having children. Human cloning could make it possible for many more infertile couples to have children” (Smith, 1998). Embryonic stem cells can be grown to produce organs and tissues. This can be used to regenerate or replace damaged organs. The combination of human stem cells and cloning technologies can be used to reproduce the tissue for the affected people whose immune system rejects the foreign tissues. “Therapeutic cloning technology may someday be used in humans to produce whole organs from single cells or to produce healthy cells that can replace damaged cells in degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's or Parkinson's” (McFarland, 2000). The process of cloning opens the door to the surgery operations that could save many lives. Instead of using materials that are foreign to the bodies, with cloning it is possible to grow cells, bones, tissues, which fit to the person with undergoing treatment. Victims of terrible accidents with deformed faces can expect to have a return of its functions using secure technology. Breast implants, dentures, and many other things would not be simply needed, since the materials of the human cloning technology would be not differing from their normal tissues.
Despite all of these counterarguments, there is such thing that should be banned without question. Cloning is one of them. The sign for this are the moral and practical reasons. Today, there is no possibility to conduct human cloning safely. One of the main reasons why human cloning is a terrible thing is that it will allow people to clone themselves. Just imagine that you can get the twin. Parents, who lost their children, can get tempted to clone their dead child. Some may think that you can get a new Einstein or withdraw league superhuman or super-athletes, or, on the contrary, spawn villains who have been in the history of our country. However, we should remember that the twins are identical in appearance only, and the characters and destinies are different.
There are also moral reasons. Ethical reasons are related to the fact that cloning is a very unnatural form of reproduction, which installs as an unnatural relationship between parents and children. The cloned baby will have very unbalanced relationship with his or her parents. He or she will be a child and the twin of the parent from which the genes were taken. However, in this case, there is nothing to do with the other parent. This other parent will need to educate the younger edition of her husband. It will be the problem for the parent when the child will reach the puberty. There is also the risk of abuse and speculation on the misfortune of the people who cannot have their own children. In addition to these considerations, there are many practical concerns. Cloning is a punch wedge for a series of new technologies that will lead ultimately to the appearance of babies to order, and it is likely that this technology will become enforceable before genetic engineering. Due to the fact that the technology is not developed enough, as already mentioned above, there is a high probability of a large number of defective clones. Human cloning could be the same as human genetic engineering. There is a threat of the emergence of individuals with genetic mutations, etc. In turn, this is a threat to the whole of the human species. It could reduce a genetic diversity and make us more vulnerable to epidemics.
Cloning is a potentially enormous opportunities for aggressive states, terrorist and criminal groups. History shows that authoritarian states often collapse after the dictator's death. So, dictators can try to create copies to perpetuate the power of personality. It could be the powerful tool for military forces to create extra soldiers and use them in their intentions. Moreover, any technology eventually becomes cheaper and accessible. In particular, thirty years ago the production of the book required such features as a huge printing press and dozens of skilled labor. So, today in order to accomplish this process it is enough to have a good computer and a printer that will fit on one table. Possibility of cloning might be involved, for example, in the Chinese culture, where the birth of a girl is not welcomed. Cloning can make this process irreversible and would be faced with a huge imbalance.
Making the conclusion, we have to admit that the technology of the human cloning should be banned. There is a sad experience of the humanity that shows us the unreasonable behavior of the human being with scientific discoveries. In addition, the full control over scientific knowledge is impossible. This is demonstrated by the fact that the top-secret information about the technology of the atomic weapons’ development is now available to virtually everyone. Cloning technology also cannot be kept in secret forever.