Crime Continues to Be a Masculine Pursuit
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Crime can defined as any action that is against the provisions of the law, or a breach of ethics and a religious rules and regulations set by a given society to protect individual rights and those of the society at large. However crimes tend to differ from one society or country to another depending on the culture and laws of that country. The intensity of crime is also determined by the rules and regulations set to stop occurrence of certain behavior in the society. Generally, crime is not a new occurrence in our societies. The history of crime root back to civilization of man and what has changed is only the way criminal activities are carried in the modern society. However, it should be noted that crime was generally a pursuit of man even in early 16th century although few cases of women involvement in crime were also witnessed. The issue of gendered crime has become a controversy whereby modern psychologists and ethicists argue that even to date crime continues to be a masculine quest (Hill, 2008).
In order to determine the reliability of these arguments, this essay highlights on the rate of gendered crimes in our modern societies in comparison to olden days with more attention put on the factors that influence these crimes. There are several factors that influence crime in every society or country. These factors include strictness of the law, cultural restrictions, technological growth, genetic makeup, gap between the poor and the rich, level of education among the society members, poverty, religious guidelines and social responsibilities among others. However it should be noted that these factors affect men and women in different societies differently. This disparity has made crime to be more in masculine activity than it is in feminine in the modern world. However, feminine involvement in criminal activities has also increased although not in a tempting rate like it is in men. Most of the criminal offences currently are associated with males. They include robbery with violence, terrorism, rioting, rape cases, mass killing, and domestic violence among others (Morash, 2006).
Domestic violence is one of the famous crimes committed by men in our societies. Cases of men battering their female spouses and even children are common especially in African and Asian country where modernization is yet to be fully experienced. According to the research conducted by a group of psychologists from Cambridge University between 2006 and 2010, over 80% of domestic crimes in USA are committed by men whereby men beat their wives and children and sometimes killing them or leaving them handicapped. The research shown only 20% of the domestic violence crimes in USA were committed by women who in most cases were under influence of drugs and alcohol. Cases of domestic violence crimes by men are more common in African countries where rights of women in the society tend to be neglected or receive little attention (Frederic &Miller, 2010).
The research also shown that increase of male domestic violence crimes was as a result of discriminative cultural beliefs, especially in African communities, that permit men to exercise dominance over women. Most of the cultures in developing countries promote male chauvinism where males are seen to be the decision makers and owners of everything in the society including their wives and children. In such countries, domestic crimes committed by men are very common. On the other hand, women are not free to report cases of domestic crimes committed by their male spouses. This weakness by women has also increased domestic masculine crimes since there is no one to report then to the authorities. Religious beliefs in some countries have also contributed to masculine domestic violence. Muslim religion gives men more authority in the society whereby women are seen to be subjects of men. This has made cases of domestic crimes to increase drastically in Asian countries where Islamic is the main religion (Simpson, 1998). However, cases of women involvement in domestic violence are also becoming popular in developing countries as women try to fight for their rights or revenge ill treatment from their male counterparts.
Another form of crime that is common in modern societies is that of robbery with violence. Statistics have shown that most of the crimes of robbery with violence are associated with men especially those below 40 years. According to the information released by CNN researchers in the year 2010, over 90% of violent robberies committed in Europe and America were perpetuate d by males. Robbery with violence has become common in major US towns such as in Miami and California among others. These crimes include bank robberies, breaking into people’s cars, houses and business premises. According to the report released by Washington police unit in charge of robbery with violence, most of these crimes are committed by men below 40 years. The report also indicates that most of these men constitute of black American living in less developed city outskirts (Caputi, 1992).
The cause of such crimes is associated with social imbalances among the poor, normally blacks, and the rich who are normally whites. For instance, black people leaving in western countries have been experiencing discrimination in terms of access social resources from the whites. This made the children of the black people to be brought up in unfit environments such as ghettos with no one to teach them about morals. Male teenagers are allowed to loiter in the streets where they become exposed to unethical practices such as robbery and drug abuse unlike their white age mates who are normally taken to better schools and brought up to moral adults. When these children become adults, life is normally not smooth to them due to lack of food, accommodation and other necessities since they no longer rely on their parents. These young men team up into small group that go out breaking into people’s residences and business premises in order to earn living. They normally target the richer group whom they feel are the reasons for their poor status (Stanko & Newburn, 1995).
However their sisters are normally left home with their parents and in most cases they do not hang out on streets. This makes them less prone to robbery with violence. Females are also said to withstand harsh conditions without complaining three times than their male counterparts. However, few numbers of female robbers have been taken to court which is evidence that women too are involved in robbery crimes. According to investigations conducted on these women by criminology and investigation departments in the US, most of these women are normally under men orders that use them to achieve their evil intentions. It should be noted that this trend is not witnessed only in the US only but in all parts of the world where there is a great disparity between the poor and the rich. This trend appears to increase everyday due to economic upheavals and unequal distribution of resources that is witnessed in many countries globally (Jeffrey, 2006).
Terrorism and mass killing is another form of crime that has become popular currently in most parts of the world. News are nowadays reporting incidences of terrorist bombing and killing of innocent people by unlawful groups and movements that are formed on criminal grounds. These groups include Taliban, al-Qaida, revolution army of southern Sudan and other minor groups found in other countries such as Mungiki, and alshabab. These groups were there in the olden days although they were normally formed to fight for the common goal of the group especially while fighting for independence. However, modern unlawful criminal groups are formed by individuals who want to contradict the law in order to achieve their unethical goals. (Shiu, 2009). These could be to overthrow the government, extend boundaries of their territory and avenge loss of some of their individuals lost during their confrontation with the government.
In some situations, these terrorists groups are formed in order to protect the interest of the members which could be religious, political or even economical. For instance, alshabab and other malicious groups hijack ships while in the deep sea in order to revenge some actions from the owners of these ships or to earn some economic gains in terms of payment so that they can release the ships. In addition, these groups also do kill their culprits in order to scare their challengers. According to researchers, over 98% of those involved in such criminal activities are normally from the masculine gender. Most cases of suicide bombers are normally males who are sometimes disguised as females (Wolven, 2005).
However, it should be noted that masculine gender is normally the key founders and runners of such unlawful groups and movements. According to history records, men were the ones who participated in most risky situations in the society. For instance, it is men who participated in fighting during the first and Second World War. They were the ones responsible for the fight that was experienced in various countries, especially during the struggle for independence in Africa and other countries where independence was not attained peacefully. According to biologists, men possess hormones such as testosterone which make them more active, violent and tougher than their female counterparts who are normally naturally calm and don’t like conflict or other risky ventures due to their body genetic makeup (Collier, 1998).
Generally women are believed to be cowards and fear dangerous confrontations such as those involving gun fires and use of other dangerous weapons. This perception was there even before civilization of man and up to now female gender is not involved in activities that involve physical fitness. This has made feminine gender not to get involved in criminal activities such as terrorism and other crimes that could involve losing of one’s life. Normally, women are left at homes or in the handouts where they take care or the children and those who could be hurt during the crime. However things are currently changing and women have been seen to venture in crimes that were initially meant to be for men. However, comparing the rate at which women are venturing such crimes, it is evident that crime is still a masculine pursuit (Emmins, 2009).
Education difference between females and males in different countries is also another contributor on increasing crime rates amongst the masculine gender in our societies. During the ancient days, women were normally not taken to schools or get access to home tuition that was there before establishment of schools. This made it possible for only men to dominated most of the responsibilities in the society that involved application of learned skills such as ability to count, write and even reading. Consequently, only men were entrusted with responsibilities that involved public resources and other professions that involved other members of the society such as law and medicine. The fact that males were the most informed members of the society made it possible for them to involve in criminal activities such as embezzlement of public fund, corruption in public offices and other social offences since they were the ones who worked there. Women were normally left with domestic responsibilities that did not require any form of formal education hence lowering their likelihood of getting involved in crimes such as corruption (Potter, 2000).
Recent research has shown that this culture has not changed. Although remarkable efforts have been made in the last century to ensure that female gender have the access to formal education, most women especially in the developing countries do not have access to basic education not to mention formal education. According to research done by UN on millennium goals, most of the women in African and Asian countries do not have access to both formal and basic education. In African countries and other countries where resources are not adequate, male children are taken to school at the expense of the female ones. This difference in education has made men to be more informed than women in the society. Consequently, most of the public positions in the modern world are occupied by men who are normally in control major of resources in the society. When cases of social injustices in these offices such as embezzlement of public funds, discrimination, gender abuse and other criminal offences arise, most of the victims are normally men since they are the one in charge of these offices. For instance, most fraud cases that are witnessed in public offices and other formal employments are normally done by the masculine gender. Though lack of education has contributed to major problems in the society, it is clear that gender imbalance in education has made crime to remain a masculine pursuit. (Collier, 1998).
Another form crime has been mostly committed by masculine gender is that involving politics and such as riots and strikes among other criminal offences that are as a result of political gain. All through the history of man, leadership positions have been preserved by men. Women have been always subject to men who normally dominated most of the positions in the society. For instance, in US all of its presidents have been men and research has shown that most of the high offices on earth are normally occupied men. Women are normally left to serve as subordinates in minor jobs that are normally not competitive and are less influential.
However it should be noted that these leadership positions are not attained on a silver platter and they call for vigorous campaign and sometimes violence is between followers of different aspirants is a common phenomenon. Cases of leaders assassinating one another in order to occupy their political positions were there even in the olden days. Use violence and other forms of riots were also common in ancient days especially in the European countries during the times of Caesar and king Charles of England. During these times, leaders normally mobilized their supporters against their opponents in order to silence them. This normally involved committing crimes such burning of houses, killing of the opponents, kidnapping and other injustice activities towards the opponents (Merlo & Benekos, 2001).
Although time has changed and political world has changed due to efforts made by humanitarian organization and other human right organizations campaigns for democratic leadership, use of unethical practices to attain political gain has become popular in many countries. Currently political parties are using violence in order to silence their opponents. These crimes normally include assassination of those in office, killing of the supporters of the opponents; dishonesty during elections and other unethical practices that are associated with has dominated political offices in all countries. This political inequality has made men to be vulnerable to such crimes. Good examples of political crimes include that committed by Gaddafi in Libya, those committed by Hitler in Germany and Saadam in Iraq. These leaders committed crimes against humanity in order to retain their political positions (Walklate, 2009).
Although women are participating in political leaderships, most of the crimes committed in the process of securing ones political interests are normally committed by men. The rate of occurrences of these crimes amongst the masculine gender has increased in the recent days due to increase in competition among men for political positions. Although women have also shown their interests in politics especially in the 21st century, they are not much possessed to an extent of committing crimes in order to acquire political goals. According to the research conducted by the law student in the university of Makerere Uganda, 99 % of the people prosecuted for political crimes in Africa between 2000 and 2010 are normally men. The 1% of the women political criminals did not commit serious offences and they were normally under instructions of their male counterparts. There are various ways in which political crimes can be committed. There are those who plan the crimes, sponsor them and those who participate in the actual criminal acts. However, according to the international criminal court, all these parties are guilt and are should be prosecuted. Funny enough, since the formation of this court, those prosecuted or suspected of committing political crimes are women. This is a clear indication that most of the political crimes are normally committed by men (Simpson, 1998).
Our cultures have also promoted involvement of men in crime. In most societies, women are normally restricted from doing or not doing several things by the norms and values of the society. For instance, women in most of the African and Asian countries are not allowed to walk at night or to attend places such as night clubs and other social places that such beer drinking places that are termed as masculine. On the contrary, women are supposed to remain within their homes with their parents at night unless in the company of one of the senior members of the family. During day time, girl is supposed to go to social places such as churches and other places where they can learn morals. This makes then to lack access to places that could be sources of bad influence such as crimes and drug taking. On the other hand, boys grow up outgoing and they mix with other people who influence them to join unethical groups such as robbery gangs and other groups that are in crimes against humanity (Karen & Kruttschnitt, 2006).
On same issue of the family influence, parents are normally less concerned on how their male children grow up when compared to their concern on the female children. According to the research conducted by the International organizational for children welfare (IOCW), girl children spends most of her time with her parents more that it is with the boy child. In many societies, girls same in the same houses with their daughters until they are through with education up to the time of marriage when they are fully mature adults. They even monitor the kind of friends that their daughter is associated with in order to avoid cases of indiscipline practices such as engaging in premarital sex that could lead to unwanted pregnancies. Although this monitoring is not initially intended to stopping crime, they indirectly prevent the females from venturing into crimes such as drug abuse and abortion in countries where it is illegal due lack of exposure and good morals since their early ages (Walklate, 2006).
On the contrary, parents spend little time with their sons and most of the times boys are left to seek company within their neighborhood. Funny enough, parents are less concerned about the company that their son spends most of his free time with. During these outings, these male children meet with other people who normally have great influence to their behavior since they spend most of their free time with them. Sometimes the company that these boys mingle with could be involved in unethical practices such as criminal activities and other social injustices these males are forced to join the group in order to remain friends. These groups are involved practices such as drug abuse and they require money to buy these drugs that cannot be borrowed from the parents (Kappeler & Potter, 1996).
Therefore the group is forced to practicing unlawful money earning practices in order to earn money to buy these drugs. As time passes, the group establishes and develops into a big gang capable of big crimes such as killing, bank robbery and other crimes that are categories as big by the authorities. Those who leave the group find it easy to involve themselves in crime as individuals later due to the acquired behavior in them. When these kids grow up into parents, they too develop the same poor relationship with their male children just as it was with their own parents and the process becomes a cycle. This poor relationship between parents and their boy children has contributed greatly in continuing increase of the number the males that are involved in criminal activities. The situation might worsen in the 21st century due to high living cost that have made parents to spend most of their times in workplace and have no time with their male children who are more susceptible to crimes. According psychologist, growth and development of male children require more attention in order for them to grow into reliable adults who can be depended on in future (Carmody, 2000).
According to the research conducted UN on the number of inmates in the member states cells. Over 75 % of those behind bars were normally men and the rest were women and children. Actually, in the US only male convicts constituted 85% of the total convicts according to the research that was conducted between 2005 and 2010. The number of male prisons also outweighs that of females. Actually in some countries male prisons are triple that of females. Funny enough, these prisons are ever congested whereas there are a times when female prison accommodate far below their capacities. Few women in cell are normally found guilty of minor crimes that may be were not intentional ones and the reasoning behind them can be justifiable outside the provision of the law. This polices custodies normally are full of male suspected waiting to be taken to court. This is a clear indication of how males are the ones involved in crimes more frequently than their female counterparts (Graber, 1980).
When it comes to those who lose their lives as result of being gunned by the police majority of the victims are normally men. According to the research conducted by a group of psychologists in New York, 99% of the criminals killed by the police in the US between 2000 and 2010 are men. According to these statistics, most of the criminals gunned down are between 35 and 20 years which is a clear indication that crime is normally a pursuit for young adults and more specifically for masculine gender. However the number of women killed by the police during the same duration also had increased in a decreasing rate compared with the previous year, which is a clear indication of how males continue with their quest to involve in criminal activities (Walklate, 2009).
In most societies especially in Africa, men have responsibilities of taking care of the family. This responsibility has made masculine to get involved in unethical activities only to earn living for their families. This has been facilitated in the fact that in most of the undeveloped countries, most of the people are not employed and they live below a dollar per day. The situation becomes more compromising when children from these families start going to school and there is need for school fees, uniform and other requirements that a children need to grow well and pursue his/her education well (Graber, 1980). Lack of income sources to men who have responsibility of talking care of their families has made them to involve in unethical activities which in most of the time are criminal in nature. In most cases men are forced to steal or involve themselves in criminal activities in order to get some income to support their families. The situation is similar in families where females are the sole bread winners and they do not have formal source of income. In most cases, women who are involved in crimes are single mothers or children without parents or guardians to take care of them. However the number of men who are involving in criminal activities in order to take care of their families is higher than that of women who are doing the same. This behavior is normally common in African and Asian countries where men are normally the bread winners in their families (Fishman, 2005).
Comparing the rate of crime in masculine and feminine gender, there is a great disparity between these two groups. It is obvious that men are the major culprit in most of the crimes that are committed in our societies. It is obvious that crime did not start recently in our society but it was there even before the civilization of man. All through the history of crime, men have been seen to play a big role in extending crime. Women are seen to be always less involved in crime and the number of women involved in crime is less few than the number of men who are involved in crime (Hanby, 2005).
The continuity of crime being a masculine pursuit is an occurrence has been caused by several factors that are normally part of the human life. In order to reduce this kind of disparity, it is important to ensure that these factors are reversed and men are not exposed to situations that could lead them to crime. For instance, societies should promote balanced education among all children regardless of their gender differences. This will ensure that public offices are not dominated by men only hence reducing their likelihood of involving criminal activities such as corruption or discrimination at workplace. This will not only reduce the gap between men and women involved in crime but also the rate of crimes committed our societies (Geeken, 1994).
Our societies should also change from cultural practices and beliefs that pushing men or allowing them to participate in crime. It is the high time for societies to cease from viewing the responsibility of taking care of the family as that of men only. If women too start contributing in meeting the family expenses, the burden will become lighter and men will not find it necessary to involve themselves in unethical activities such as robbery in order to earn living for their families. Family should also ensure that lives of all members are monitored in order to ensure male children, who are more susceptible, to crime are not left to mess himself. Parents should secure time from their work time or while not at work when they can advice their children on how to live moral lives (Eschholz & Blackwell, 2002). These advices can be very helpful to male children since they help them to grow into reliable members of the society and free from crime.
Governments of respective countries also have a big role to play in ensuring that crime rate among the masculine gender does not continue to go up. The gap between the poor in the society can also be reduced or brought completely. Policies that those in power should aim at empowering all the citizens in a given country regard less of their skin color place of origin. When public resources are fairly distributed amongst the all the members of the society, level of poverty goes down and thing reduces the rate of crimes in the country. Government should also promote democratic political system where there is transparency and integrity is choosing who should become a leader and when this will reduce unnecessary competition for power amongst different aspirants, who are mostly men, hence cases of political confrontations that result fierce crimes will be reduced too ( Anderson, 1999).
Generally, it is the high time for masculine gender to determine that they are the many cause of pain in our societies through their involvement crimes that result to loss of life, dignity and property. They should realize that according to the law, there is no a single reason to justify any criminal activity. Our male members need to be change their ways of life and choose ethical sources of income other than depending on evil practices that not on only cause pain to the victims but to them and their families when they are caught. Arrested, prosecuting and maintaining those found guilty in prison cost a lot of resources from the public in form of tax and that money can be used in more productive activities if there are no criminal in our society (Stephenson, 2008). When all is said and done, it is evident that crime continues to be a masculine pursuit, a trend that will continue for many years to come if nothing is done.