Water is life. Man and other living organisms cannot survive without this otherwise rare resource. Water crisis is a situation where by the available water resource does not meet the demand of a particular population. Sustainable water development and management has all along proved to be an undisputed critical component of societal development. Since time immemorial, water has remained a life-or-death issue both for man and other organisms. This has led to rise in direct physiological consequences as well as indirect effects on food production. More over actual or even potential water shortages lead to significant social stress as well as physiological stress in individuals and communities, (Mackay and Ashton, 183).
Many people lack access to clean and safe water across the world. Today reports from the United Nations have indicated that water crisis is a global problem that must be addressed with great concern before it goes beyond an irreversible level. The report asserts that the tremendous population growth globally, has overstretched this economic resource. It is estimated that the population growth rate has risen to 2.5 billion people per year. This new rate will see an extra 6.4 billion cubic centimeters of water consumed daily. (WHO/UNICEF, 25).
Water Crisis is manifested by these factors: Over 884 million people globally lack clean water; 2.5 billion people lack water for sanitation and waste disposal, biodiversity is harmed at an alarming rate through water overuse and pollution. Finally, regional conflicts over water have been witnessed. This is a clear indication on how water has become a global problem. (U.N org. 19).
Many Countries globally lack clean water but critical ones, with significant population consuming contaminated water, are: Venezuela 5.0 million Sudan 12.3 million, Cuba 1.3 million, Zimbabwe 2.7 million and other countries that experience water deficits include China, Mexico, North America, Iran, India and Pakistan. (Tamil Nadu/Channae news).
On water consumption, averagely each person uses 410litres of water daily, but In America it stretches up to 630 litres per head on each day. In Europe 200 litres, France, 150 litres, Beijing, 145, Israel 135, Latin America 75-100 litres, and in Sub Saharan 10- 20 litres. (Rahnn, 41).
Apart from water, being used in agriculture, environmental, industrial, and household activities, and relative amount of water is also used in the natural ecosystem. But this sector is not recognized by majority of people. On same note water, usage in production of bio fuels is never recognized by many people because it is not a direct process. (Ellena and Humprey, 22).
When Americans go to the taps and open them, turn the faucet handle, water gushes out, they think that water crisis in America is a dream. But practically, America is facing a serious water crisis since they experience the most risky activity (pollution) in large scale. Pollution is insidious because it happens out of mind and sight. The water runs from farm fields, municipal wastewater treatment plants and factories may enter rivers or groundwater. When this water is drawn from streams or pumped from the ground, it is already contaminated. Additionally another biggest misuse of water is the excessive pumping of groundwater. (Glennon, 73).
On curbing the alarming global water crisis, drastic measures must be carried out swiftly. It must be observed that the existing water resources should be conserved and sewage recycled. This is a just a precautionary towards the problem. Some of these measures include:
Governments of various countries should form and implement policies that can effectively resolve the problem of accessibility of clean water to the population. For instance, effective policies in Uganda and Turkey have actually halved the problem of water accessibility. Secondly though capital intensive, countries should embrace Construction of plants for wastewater treatment and minimization of groundwater over drafting. In addition, desalination plants should be reduced. This is because construction of these plants is energy intensive and costly.
Another key measure is to improve transboundary cooperation. Regional economic development and preservation of culture can all be strengthened by cooperation of states through water crisis. Water management can be viewed as a trend towards cooperation and peace. Most important, drinking water supply should be improved. This implies that awareness on clean water should be prioritized.
In conclusion, water crisis is practical and really and the aforementioned measures should be implemented to curb the problem. Most importantly, awareness should be prioritized to encourage each and every one of us to conserve water in whatever manner possible.