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Epilepsy

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Epilepsy is a brain disorder in which the signals are transmitted incorrectly. This illness is not a rare phenomenon. Many people who suffer from epilepsy are intelligence. Moreover, some of them are well-known artists. This paper will discuss the categories of drugs used in the treatment of epilepsy according to their classification and mechanism of action.

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Antiepileptic drugs are the main means of treatment for people suffering from this disease. They are classified into several categories. Based on the chemical structure these drugs are divided into ones that consist of barbituric acid (phenobarbital, heksamidin, benzonal), hydantoin (diphenine), succinimide (ethosuximide), derivatives of valproic acid (sodium valproate), derivatives of iminostilbenu (carbamazepine) (Goldenberg, 2010). Based on the usage antiepileptic drugs are divided into drugs for treatment of major seizures (phenobarbital, carbamazepine, benzonal, lamotrigine), drugs for treatment of minor seizures (ethosuximide, sodium valproate, lamotrigine, clonazepam), for the treatment of focal seizures (carbamazepine, phenobarbital, sodium valproate, clonazepam, lamotrigine) (Goldenberg, 2010).

Furthermore, antiepileptic drugs can be divided categories based on the mechanism of action into the following: Sodium Channel Blockers, GABA Receptor Agonists, GABA Reuptake Inhibitors, Glutamate Blockers. Drugs of Sodium Channel Blockers deactivate channels and reduce seizure activity and spread of seizures (Asadi-Pooya & Sperling, 2009). Carbamazepine, phenytoin, fosphenytoin, oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, zonisamide, and lacosamide belong to such drugs. The drugs of the following category treat by binding to other receptors. The most common drugs are lorazepam, diazepam, clonazepam, and clobazam. GABA Reuptake Inhibitors are Nipecotic acid and tiagabine. Additionally, Glutamate Blockers open the channel of the receptor that transmits calcium and sodium. This channel is blocked by magnesium. This category includes felbamate, topiramate, and perampanel.

Epilepsy is a chronic disease. People who suffer from epilepsy usually have several seizures. Every year the number of people suffering from this disease increases. Scientists invented drugs to treat it. They are divided into several categories and have different mechanism of action.

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